The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has officially named four new elements to the Periodic Table. The new names, proposed in June, underwent five months of public comment and review. The atomic weight for man-made elements is based on the longest-lived isotope. So, atomic weights of these elements should be considered provisional since a new isotope with a longer half-life could be produced in the future.
Let us check out details of each element
Nihonium is classified as a metal and is expected to be solid at room temperature. It was previously designated ununtrium, a placeholder name that means one-one-three in Latin. Scientists with Japan’s RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science proposed the element name Nihonium, which means “Japan” in Japanese.
Discovery: Kosuke Morita and his colleagues created the elusive element on Aug. 12, 2012, after colliding zinc nuclei together in a thin layer of bismuth. Like other superheavy elements, after 113 was created, it quickly decayed, ultimately turning element 113 into 111, and then 109, 107, 105, 103 and finally into element 101.
Nihonium has six isotopes with known half-lives. The most stable isotope is 286Nh, with a half-life of about 20 seconds.
Moscovium is classified as a metal and is expected to be solid at room temperature. It decays quickly into other elements, including Nihonium. It was previously designated ununpentium, a placeholder name that means one-one-five in Latin.Moscovium is named after Moscow to honor the place where it was discovered.
Discovery: Moscovium was discovered in 2003 and officially announced on Feb. 2, 2004. It was created and announced by scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States. To make moscovium, the scientists in Russia and the United States bombarded atoms of americium with ions of calcium in a cyclotron. This produced four atoms of moscovium.
Only a few atoms of moscovium have ever been made, and they are only used in scientific study. It is used to make Nihonium. Moscovium has four isotopes with known half-lives, the most stable of which is 289Mc, with a half-life of about 220 milliseconds.
Tennessine is expected to be solid, but its classification is unknown. It is a member of the halogen group. It was previously designated ununseptium, a placeholder name that means one-one-seven in Latin. In November 2016, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) approved the name Tennessine for element 117. Tennessine, is named after Tennessee to honor the place of its discovery.
Discovery: It was discovered in 2010 and jointly announced on April 5 of that year by scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The scientists who created Tennessine bombarded atoms of berkelium with ions of calcium until atoms Ttennessine were produced.
Tennessine has two isotopes with known half-lives and two with unknown half-lives. The most stable isotope is 294Ts, with a half-life of about 80 milliseconds.
Oganesson is expected to be a gas and is classified as a non-metal. It is a member of the noble gas group. It was previously designated ununoctium, a placeholder name that means one-one-eight in Latin. The name oganesson honors Yuri Oganessian “for his pioneering contributions to transactinide elements research.
Discovery: Oganesson was discovered in 2002 by Russian scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Three years prior, in 1999, the team at the Lawrence Berkeley Labs in California published a paper announcing the discovery of element 118, but their results could not be replicated and the team retracted their paper. In 2006, the element was officially announced by the Dubna team and by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team, who had been working with the Dubna scientists.The Russian scientists who produced Oganesson bombarded atoms of californium with ions of calcium for 1,080 hours. This resulted in three atoms of Oganesson.
Oganesson has one known isotope, 294Og, with a half-life of about 0.89 milliseconds. Through alpha decay, it turns into 290Lv (livermorium-290).